CitationBravo, Mercedes A.; Fang, Fang; Hancock, Dana B.; Johnson, Eric O.; & Mullan Harris, Kathleen (2023). Long-term air pollution exposure and markers of cardiometabolic health in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Study. Environment International.
AbstractBackground Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although exposure to air pollution early in life may represent a critical window for development of cardiovascular disease risk factors, few studies have examined associations of long-term air pollution exposure with markers of cardiovascular and cardiometabolic health in young adults. Objectives By combining health data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with air pollution data from the Fused Air Quality Surface using Downscaling (FAQSD) archive, we: (1) calculated multi-year estimates of exposure to ozone (O3) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) for Add Health participants; and (2) estimated associations between air pollution exposures and multiple markers of cardiometabolic health. Methods Add Health is a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of over 20,000 adolescents aged 12–19 in the United States (US) in 1994–95 (Wave I). Participants have been followed through adolescence and into adulthood with five in-home interviews. Estimated daily concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 at census tracts were obtained from the FAQSD archive and used to generate tract-level annual averages of O3 and PM2.5 concentrations. We estimated associations between average O3 and PM2.5 exposures from 2002–07 and markers of cardiometabolic health measured at Wave IV (2008–09), including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, C-reactive protein, and metabolic syndrome. Results The final sample size was 11,259 individual participants. The average age of participants at Wave IV was 28.4 years (range: 24–34 years). In models adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and sex, long-term O3 exposure (2002–07) was associated with elevated odds of hypertension, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.015 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.011, 1.029); obesity (1.022 [1.004, 1.040]); diabetes (1.032 [1.009,1.054]); and metabolic syndrome (1.028 [1.014, 1.041]); PM2.5 exposure (2002–07) was associated with elevated odds of hypertension (1.022 [1.001, 1.045]). Conclusion Findings suggest that long-term ambient air pollution exposure, particularly O3 exposure, is associated with cardiometabolic health in early adulthood.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleEnvironment International
Author(s)Bravo, Mercedes A.
Hancock, Dana B.
Johnson, Eric O.
Mullan Harris, Kathleen