CitationLee, Rosalyn & Luo, Feijun (2023). Parental incarceration in childhood and violent delinquent behaviors in adulthood: Race/ethnicity and sex differences. Journal of Family Trauma, Child Custody & Child Development.
AbstractStudies indicate parental incarceration (PI) is associated with children’s externalizing behaviors. Fewer studies have examined whether the relationship persists into adulthood, manifesting specifically in violent behavior, and differs by race/ethnicity or sex of the individual exposed to PI during childhood. Wave I and Wave IV National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data where average respondent age was 15.7 and 28.8 years, respectively, was used to expand understanding of PI impact on U.S. male and female violent behavior. PI was associated with fighting, fighting that seriously injured someone, and any violent delinquent behavior in adulthood. When examining the moderating effect of race/ethnicity, the association between PI and fighting was stronger for Hispanic persons than Non-Hispanic White persons. In analysis stratified by race/ethnicity, Hispanic persons who reported PI compared to those who did not were 4.78 [95% CI: 2.43, 9.38] times as likely to report fighting and Non-Hispanic Black persons who reported PI compared to those who did not were 1.88 times as likely (CI 1.01, 3.51) to report fighting. Sex was not found to be a moderator of the association between PI and violent delinquent behaviors. Results indicate the influence of PI on violent behavior persists into adulthood and differs by race/ethnicity. Differing patterns of elevated violence risk in adults with PI history suggest tailored preventive strategies may be of value.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleJournal of Family Trauma, Child Custody & Child Development