CitationZhang, X. & Grant, A. (2023). Parent–Child Relationships from Adolescence to Adulthood: An Examination of Children’s and Parent’s Reports of Intergenerational Solidarity by Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status from 1994–2018 in the United States. Social Sciences. vol. 12 (5)
AbstractBackground: Parent–child relationships are increasingly central in family life due to the delayed transition to adulthood. Methods: Using data from Add Health and the Add Health Parent Study from 1994–2018, we examine changes in parent–child relationships reported by the child and the parent across gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) from ages 12–43 years old. We examine three broad categories of intergenerational solidarity: Affectual (closeness, relationship quality, and emotional support), associational (satisfaction with communication), and functional (financial and instrumental support). Results: For the overall sample, parent–child closeness remains high but decreases from ages 12–43. By gender, we find that daughters report lower relationship quality with their mothers and fathers in adolescence. By race and ethnicity, we find that parent–child closeness is highest among Black respondents. By SES, we find that respondents whose mothers attained less than a high school degree report the greatest mother–child closeness. Conclusions: Overall, parents remain an important source of emotional, instrumental, and financial support in the transition to adulthood, especially for Black and low-SES adolescents. It is important to pay attention to the intersectional nature of the parent–child relationship with regard to the timing of the life course and race, ethnicity, gender, and SES. © 2023 by the authors.
NotesExport Date: 13 July 2023; Cited By: 0; Correspondence Address: X. Zhang; College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, 85004, United States; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleSocial Sciences