Social integration and quality of social relationships as protective factors for inflammation in a nationally representative sample of black women


Ford, Jodi; Anderson, Cindy; Gillespie, Shannon; Giurgescu, Carmen; Nolan, Timiya; Nowak, Alexandra; & Williams, Karen Patricia (2019). Social integration and quality of social relationships as protective factors for inflammation in a nationally representative sample of black women. Journal of Urban Health. vol. 96 (Suppl 1) pp. 35-43


Social integration and supportive relationships protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, prior studies have examined heterogeneous samples which may obscure unique relationships within groups. We investigate the association between social relationships and inflammation—a known CVD risk factor—in Black women, a population with higher rates of CVD and CVD mortality. Secondary data from wave 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were analyzed. The sample was comprised of 1829 Black women aged 24–34 years. Social integration was a z-score standardized measure of four items (marital/cohabitation status, church attendance, volunteerism, close friendships). Data on the quality of three relationship types was available: perceived happiness with a romantic relationship and perceived closeness to mother and father figure. Inflammation was measured via high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in which levels were categorized based on clinical cut-points for risk of CVD (< 1 mg/L = low risk—reference, 1–3 mg/L = moderate risk, > 3–10 mg/L = high risk, > 10 mg/L = very high risk). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted accounting for the complex survey design and wave 4 control measures (e.g., body mass index, smoking, medications, acute illness, overall health, sociodemographic factors). No significant associations were found between level of social integration and hs-CRP levels. With respect to relationship quality, women who reported they were very happy with their romantic relationship were less likely than those who were only fairly happy or unhappy to have hs-CRP levels in the moderate- (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.75), high (AOR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.49), or very high CVD–risk category (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.80). Women who reported they were somewhat/quite/very close to their mother figure (AOR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.92) and those who reported having no mother figure (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.77) were less likely than women reporting being not very close/not close at all with their mother figure to have hs-CRP levels in the moderate- vs. low-risk category. No statistically significant associations were found between father-figure relationship and hs-CRP CVD risk category. In summary, social integration and the quality of specific social relationships were significantly associated with inflammation in young adult Black women. Thus, interventions designed to enhance social connectedness and positive social relationships among Black women may have the potential to be protective for CVD risk. Further researches with the longitudinal social relationship and inflammatory measures are needed to better understand how changes in social relationships may influence CVD risk over the life course.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Journal Title

Journal of Urban Health


Ford, Jodi
Anderson, Cindy
Gillespie, Shannon
Giurgescu, Carmen
Nolan, Timiya
Nowak, Alexandra
Williams, Karen Patricia

Year Published


Volume Number


Issue Number

Suppl 1




January 07, 2019





Reference ID