Kapa, Ryan (2018). A multilevel analysis of long-term consequences of educational security policies. 2018 Add Health Users Conference.
Background: School leaders rely on various security measures, such as surveillance, school resource officers, and exclusionary discipline, to reduce violence and misbehavior. These measures to exercise control over students contribute to school safety and discipline becoming criminalized processes. Although intended to enhance learning environments, educational security policies are associated with undesirable outcomes, such as decreased sense of belonging at school, disproportionate rates of suspension and expulsion for minorities, and increased involvement with the criminal justice system. Research examining long-term consequences of educational security policies on educational attainment, occupation, and salary is lacking. This study explores the association of school security and these outcomes. Aims: Two hypotheses explored the association of school security and these outcomes: (1) attending schools with more educational security practices is associated with lower educational attainment, lower-status occupations, and lower salary and (2) suspension or expulsion is associated with lower educational attainment, lower-status occupations, and lower salary. Method: Data from the Wave I, II, and IV In-Home Interviews, Wave II School Administrator Questionnaire, Parental Questionnaire, and School Information Code Book were used to evaluate the association of educational security policies with education attainment, occupational prestige, and fiscal realization. Individual-level predictor variables (Waves I and II) were students' experiences with suspension and expulsion and sense of belonging at school. School-level predictor variables (Wave II School Administrator Questionnaire) were school security measures, such as surveillance and metal detectors. Outcome variables (Wave IV In-Home data) were individuals' educational attainment, current occupation, and income. The model additionally controlled for individual (demographics, grade point average) and school characteristics (location, minority enrollment, size, type). A design-based analysis incorporated proper individual and school weighting variables. Results/Conclusion: Students' individual experiences with educational security policies were associated with decreased educational attainment, occupational prestige, and fiscal realization. School-level criminalization factors were associated with decreased educational attainment but had no significant association with occupational status or pay.
2018 Add Health Users Conference
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