Zhang, Xing (2023). Adolescent Parent Child Relationships and Non-Marital Fertility in Adulthood: Variation by Race and Ethnicity.
Factors leading to racial and ethnic differences in non-marital fertility, which account for nearly 41% of all births in the U.S., are not well understood. This study examines how mother–child relationships and parental control shape the likelihood of having a non-marital birth in adulthood among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian women from 1994-2009. This paper uses data from Waves I, III, and IV of Add Health (n = 7171) and event-history analysis to find that mother-child relationships are associated with the likelihood of having a non-marital birth, with variation by race and ethnicity. Maternal warmth and communication in adolescence are associated with a decreased likelihood of having a non-marital birth in adulthood, but only among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic Asian women. Parent-child relationships are dynamic and can have lasting impacts on children’s fertility behaviors across the life course.
adolescent sexual/contraceptive behavior