CitationCortes, Yamnia I.; Zhang, Shuo; Berry, Diane C.; & Hussey, Jon (2020). Pregnancy Loss and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Early Adulthood: Preliminary Findings From Add Health. Circulation. vol. 142
AbstractIntroduction: Pregnancy loss, including miscarriage and stillbirth, affect 15-20% of pregnancies in the United States annually. Accumulating evidence suggests that pregnancy loss is associated with greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden later in life. However, associations between pregnancy loss and CVD risk factors in early adulthood (age<35 years) have not been assessed. Objective: To examine associations between pregnancy loss and CVD risk factors in early adulthood. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis using the public-use data set for Wave IV (2007-2009) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Our sample consisted of women, ages 24-32 years, with a previous pregnancy who completed biological data collection (n=2,968). Pregnancy loss was assessed as any history of miscarriage or stillbirth; and as none, one, or recurrent (≥2) pregnancy loss. Dependent variables included physical measures and blood specimens: body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and dyslipidemia. Associations between pregnancy loss and each CVD risk factor were tested using linear (for BMI) and logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, and depression. Results: Six hundred and ninety-three women (23%) reported a pregnancy loss, of which 21% reported recurrent pregnancy loss. Women with all live births were more likely to identify as non-Hispanic White (73%) and report a higher annual income. After adjusting for sociodemographics (age, race/ethnicity, education, income), pregnancy loss was associated with a greater BMI (ß=0.90; SE,0.39). In fully-adjusted models, women with recurrent pregnancy loss were more likely to have hypertension (AOR, 2.50; 95%CI, 1.04-5.96) and prediabetes (AOR, 1.93; 95%CI. 1.11-3.37) than women with all live births; the association was non-significant for women with one pregnancy loss. Conclusions: Pregnancy loss is associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile in early adulthood. Findings suggest the need for CVD risk assessment in young women with a prior pregnancy loss. Further research is necessary to identify underlying risk factors of pregnancy loss that may predispose women to CVD.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Author(s)Cortes, Yamnia I.
Berry, Diane C.